As a philosophical term in English, ‘abduction’ was originally a seventeenth century translation of a Latin term used by Renaissance logicians. Research philosophy directs the perspective from which researcher formulate research questions, plan how problem can be investigated, select research design as well as identify what methods are used and how data are collected, analyzed and interpreted (Steven & Edwards, 2008). Ordinarily, justification is divided into two broad kinds: intrinsic justification relates to how 'intuitively plausible' an axiom is, whereas extrinsic justification supports an axiom by identifying certain 'desirable' consequences. They then think about what data they need and the techniques they use to collect them. ‘Surprising facts’ or ‘puzzles’ may emerge when a researchers encounters with an empirical phenomena that cannot be explained by the existing range of theories. The debate over intellectualism has appealed to two different kinds of evidence, semantic and scientific. The American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce introduced abduction into modern logic. Sometimes this is informally called a “top-down” approach. Against this, I claim that (a) unification is a by-product of physical research and (b) unification is driven by basic methodological strategies of physics alone (without any appeal to metaphysical or metatheoretical presuppositions). Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. Champions of the methodological movement of experimental philosophy have challenged the long-standing practice of relying on intuitive verdicts on cases in philosophical inquiry. Abductive Philosophy Abductive Philosophy: The Main Argument 1.Di erent branches of science and philosophy usedi erent types of in-ferenceparadigmatically. They argue that their findings show that the verdicts of experts in philosophy are affected by factors not normally thought to be relevant to the truth of those verdicts. Now someone tells you that she just sawTim and Harry jogging together. Williamson. This book is the first complete survey and critical appraisal of the large body of research that has appeared during approximately the last decade concerning the analysis of knowing. Example:The abductive reasoning example clearly shows that conclusion might seem obvious, however it is purely based on the most plausible reasoning. Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. In the second part of the paper, I appeal to the theoretical virtues account of axiom justification to provide an argument that judgements of theoretical virtuousness, and therefore of extrinsic justification, are subjective in a substantive sense. Abductive reasoning, or inference, is a useful tool for determining the course of scientific research. In this paper, I consider an important challenge to the popular theory of scientific inference commonly known as “Inference to the Best Explanation” (IBE), one which has received scant attention. We conclude that theoretical utility arguments provide no epistemic grounds for metaphysical inquiry. ... That the one-comet hypothesis best explains the evidence raises our confidence in that hypothesis. Deduction & Induction. Project, Martin Lipscomb Peirce’s account of this ampliative inference changed in important ways during the 50 years between 1865 and 1914. This paper offers an emended version of the expertise reply and explains why the new findings of experimental philosophers do not undermine philosophical expertise and the probative force of verdicts from the method of cases.. We identify necessary conditions for such inferences and investigate their unificatory power. Threeee o s … This application uses the following open-source libraries: Apache License Version 2.0 (, MIT License (, CC BY 3.0 (, all of Robert K. Shope pays special attention to the social aspects of knowing and proposes a new formulation of the fundamental structure of the Gettier problem. In 'The philosophical basis of intuitionistic logic', Michael Dummett discusses two routes towards accepting intuitionistic rather than classical logic in number theory, one meaning-theoretical (his own) and the other ontological (Brouwer and Heyting's). I argue that we should discard the orthodox view and replace it with the isomorphic view. Third, the role of background and auxiliary theories in adjudicating between hypothesis options is discussed. Philosophy of Mathematics; Philosophy of Physical Science; Philosophy of Social Science; Philosophy of Probability; General Philosophy of Science; Philosophy of Science, Misc; History of Western Philosophy. Abductive reasoning and qualitative research. In the first part of this paper, I set out a potential problem caused by the appeal made to the notion of mathematical explanation and suggest that it can be remedied once it is noted that all the justificatory work is done by appeal to the theoretical virtues. The problem with Dummett's argument then is that a particular step in it, while correct for investigative procedures, is not correct for generative ones. This paper puts pressure on how this distinction is formulated and construed. In particular , we argue that the distinction as often presented is neither well-demarcated nor sufficiently precise. This surprising fact is the conclusion rather than a premise. Defenders of the semantic approach to intellectualism engage with the argument from cognitive science in a way that implicitly endorses this naturalistic metaphysics, and they even rely on it to claim that cognitive science supports intellectualism. It was adopted in 1898 by Charles S. Peirce who gave it a significant role in his system. Abductive reasoning (“Inference to the best explanation”) Abductive reasoning is “inference to the best explanation”. OutOut eline • Introduction to Abductive Reasoning • Explanation & Diagnosis • Computing Explanations • Reading Material. Abductive thought allows researchers to maximize their time and resources by focusing on a realistic line of experimentation. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In light of these objections, I attempt to dissolve the problem by showing why IBE does not require a “model” of explanation and by giving an account of what explanation consists in within the context of IBE. In this paper we take up the idea of combining creative abduction with causal principles and model instances of successful creative abduction within a Bayes net framework. In this paper I challenge two widespread convictions about unification in physics: (1) unification is an aim of physics and (2) unification is driven by metaphysical or metatheoretical presuppositions. Does IBE Require a "Model" of Explanation? ... Rather, we ought to treat 3 Here, the focus will be on IBE as a theory of scientific inference, but it's becoming increasingly common in metaphilosophical discussions to defend IBE as an important or even indispensable tool for philosophical theorizing. See, for instance. Research philosophy deals with the source, nature and development of knowledge. In the contemporary philosophy of set theory, discussion of new axioms that purport to resolve independence necessitates an explanation of how they come to be justified. In simple terms, a research philosophy is belief about the ways in which data about a phenomenon should be collected, analysed and used. Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. We demonstrate that this fact has been overlooked in the ensuing debate, resulting in inconsistency and confusion. First, it is suggested that abductively derived claims require support from deductive and inductively sourced evidence if they are to ‘hold’ and, yet, in … Ancient philosophers established two main types of reasoning to test the validity of their observations and construct rational arguments: inductive … It is argued that if qualitative researchers utilize abductive inference in the manner suggested, then the peculiarly fallible nature of abduction must be acknowledged and, in consequence, the action guiding potential of qualitative research findings is compromised. Download Citation | On Sep 1, 2016, Timothy Williamson published Abductive Philosophy | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The first and topmost layer of the research onion has to do with a set of beliefs related to the nature of reality being investigated, and is often studied in the context of ontology and epistemology. More specifically, we present conditions under which explanatory considerations can provide a significant confirmatory boost for hypotheses that provide the best explanation of the relevant evidence. In the process of making the case that theory choice in philosophy does (and should more systematically) proceed abductively, Williamson has recently presented an account of axiom justification that appears to have much in common with Russell's regressive method. The latter is more natural and has greater theoretical utility than the former. Basically, it involves forming a conclusion from the information that is known. However, abduction has been largely neglected by nurse scholars. After Peirce’s death, his ideas gradually become known with the publication of six volumes of his Collected Papers (CP) in 1931–1935. I reconstruct Dummett's argument against the ontological route and argue that it fails. Modeling creative abduction Bayesian style. But we will now show that some abductive inference is better understood as using pictorial or other iconic representations. I describe two ways of thinking about what constitutes a knowledgeable assertion – the ‘orthodox view’ and the ‘isomorphic view’. In abductive reasoning it is presumed that the most plausible conclusion also the correct one is. This paper puts pressure on how this distinction is formulated and construed. 1 The prevalence of IBE in science has led some to suggest that IBE is the quintessential way of arguing for theories in science (e.g. We argue that this situation is preventing productive debate about intellectualism, which would benefit from both sides being more transparent about their metaphilosophical assumptions. Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. Then, I motivate the problem and offer three potential solutions, the most plausible of which is to adopt a kind of pluralism about the rival models of explanation. I argue that Dummett's objection to the ontological route fails. Abductive reasoning is a logical assumption formed by observations and which is turned into a hypothesis. We also sketch several interesting applications of modeling creative abduction Bayesian style. Person We provide a novel Bayesian justification of inference to the best explanation (IBE). One morning you enter the kitchen to find a plate and cup on thetable, with breadcrumbs and a pat of butter on it, and surrounded by ajar of jam, a pack of sugar, and an empty carton of milk. Konolige's definition, like virtually all available accounts of abduction, presumes that explanatory hypotheses are represented sententially. The approach does, however, not come with a criterion for how to select the best disposition(s) D of a set of rivals all satisfying these necessary conditions. You concludethat one of your house-mates g… Visual abduction Thus, abduction can be developed further as a ‘pure’ form of inference and this gives means for analysing and organizing the abductive search explicitly within the research community. Research philosophy is an important part of research methodology. Instead, we suggest that the process of justification in set theory should not be thought of as neatly divisible in this way, but should rather be understood as a conceptually indivisible notion linked to the goal of explanation. You conclude that they are friendsagain. 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3), its main interpretations (Sect. 2.Inphilosophythe paradigm is adeductivistmethodology. All You happen to know that Tim and Harry have recently had a terrible rowthat ended their friendship. Abductive reasoning is the third form of logical reasoning and is somewhat similar to inductive reasoning, since conclusions drawn here are based on probabilities. We find that arguments from theoretical utility invoke considerations that are not truth conducive‘ and that justifications for claims that a theory possesses theoretical virtues often assume the truth of the theory such virtues are supposed to support. In Abductive Analysis, Iddo Tavory and Stefan Timmermans provide a new navigational map for theorizing qualitative research. First, it is suggested that abductively derived claims require support from deductive and inductively sourced evidence if they are to 'hold' and, yet, in qualitative research this is clearly problematic. In simple terms, deductive reasoning deals with certainty, inductive reasoning with probability, and abductive reasoning with guesswork.These three methods of reasoning, which all other reasoning types essentially fall under or are a mix of, can be a little tricky to illustrate with examples… because each can work a variety of ways (thus any one example tends to b… ... Actually principles must be judged from the point of view of science, and not science from the point of view of principles fixed once and for all (Zermelo 1967: p. 189) In addition to having substantive historical pedigree, such an account has received recent interest in the literature. The Essence of Research Philosophy . Much of this book is concerned with the way in which you collect data to answer your research question(s). All rights reserved. In the course of their arguments, however, they also reject that scientific findings can have metaphysical import. Second, there is the claim that there are no universal rules of induction. Rather, as I’ll suggest, much of the controversy stems from a failure to properly distinguish the “context of justification” from the “context of pursuit”.
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